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Cassava enterprises

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The purpose of this study was to analyse the past and present situation of cassava in Nigeria with a view to describing the lessons learned from past development interventions and their implications for a strategy for future investment in cassava research and development.

A description of the evolution of cassava development in Nigeria, which includes the identification of significant interventions that have influenced evolution.

Criteria used for analysing the relative success of each intervention include:. A synthesis of the implications for a future strategy for cassava development in Nigeria.

The case study was carried out using a combination of approaches. First, a comprehensive review of existing literature on the organization and management of cassava crop economy in Nigeria was undertaken.

Secondly, quantitative information on the area, production, marketing, etc. To supplement these two approaches, the Rapid Rural Appraisal RRA methodology was adopted to provide information that the literature and personal interviews could not supply.

Cassava is one of the most important crops in Nigeria. It is the most widely cultivated crop in the southern part of the country in terms of area devoted to it and number of farmers growing it.

Indeed, it is grown by almost every household. Cassava has also increased in importance in the Middle Belt in recent years. In all places, cassava has become very popular as a food and cash crop and is fast replacing yam and other traditional staples of the area.

In all, over four-fifths of the cultivable land area is suitable for cassava growing Figure 1. Agro-ecological suitability zones for the cultivation of cassava, based on combined data for soils, mean rainfall, mean temperature, temperature range and the length of growing season in Nigeria.

Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz was introduced into central Africa from south America in the sixteenth century by the early Portuguese explorers Jones, It was probably the emancipated slaves who introduced the cassava crop into southern Nigeria, as they returned to the country from South America via the islands of Sao Tome and Fernando Po.

At that time there were Portuguese colonies off Nigeria's shores Ekandem, Cassava, however, did not become important in the country until the end of the nineteenth century when processing techniques were introduced, as many more slaves returned home.

Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more so as a major source of income for rural households. Nigeria is currently the largest producer of cassava in the world with an annual production of over 34 million tonnes of tuberous roots.

Cassava is largely consumed in many processed forms in Nigeria. Its use in the industry and livestock feed, is well known, but is gradually increasing, especially as import substitution becomes prominent in the industrial sector of the economy.

As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples Table 1.

It is produced with relevant purchased inputs as frequently as and in some cases more frequently than other staples. A large proportion of total production, probably larger than that of most staples, is planted annually for sale.

As a food crop, cassava has some inherent characteristics which make it attractive, especially to the smallholder farmers in Nigeria.

First, it is rich in carbohydrates especially starch and consequently has a multiplicity of end uses. Secondly, it is available all year round, making it preferable to other, more seasonal crops such as grains, peas and beans and other crops for food security.

Compared to grains, cassava is more tolerant of low soil fertility and more resistant to drought, pests and diseases.

Furthermore, its roots are storable in the ground for months after they mature. Percentage distribution of food crop cash income of households producing major crops.

The socioeconomic importance of cassava and the accidental introduction of cassava mealybug which ravaged most cassava fields in the major producing areas led to the Government's direct intervention in the subsector, in the implementation of the IFAD-assisted Cassava Multiplication Project CMP between and In the early s, Nigerian cassava production fell drastically due to the combined effects of pests mealybug and green spider mite and diseases mosaic virus and cassava bacterial blight , thereby posing a threat to national food security.

Cassava production in the country has been increasing for the past 20 or more years. A recent survey of the cassava-growing areas shows that in more than 90 percent of the 65 representative villages, the farmer group respondents reported an increasing trend in cassava production over the 20 years prior to the interview in Nweke et al.

Further analysis of the available production data shows that, on the average annual basis, the harvested land area was over 80 percent higher in — than in — Both the yield and of course, the overall production showed a similar trend.

Total production at present is estimated at over 34 million tonnes Table 2. With this production level, Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world.

Cassava production was reported to be increasing among villages where cassava, yam, rice, beans or peas, were the most important crops based on farmers' ranking in the cropping system Ugwu, This implies that cassava was replacing these major crops, including fallow and pasture land in those villages.

Unless fenced round, which is prohibitive considering the relatively low value of the crop, cassava fields could be destroyed by cattle, especially during the dry season when pasture is scarce.

The villages with declining production trend were mostly located in the non-humid climate zone. Where soil fertility is low in this zone with short rainfall duration, farmers with a limited supply of fertilizer would prefer to grow short duration crops such as millet or sorghum.

Reasons adduced for the increasing trend by the farmer group respondents were rapid population growth and market demand. These two factors are related, since rapid population growth tends to increase market demand.

The proportion of villages where cassava was increasing was significantly higher in the high population density zone 95 percent than in the low population density zone 65 percent Ugwu, Estimates of annual area cultivated, root yields and total output for cassava in Nigeria during — Other factors which were not quite evident to the group respondents but which could explain the increasing trend may include: The positive relationship between the above-mentioned factors and the expansion in cassava production may be explained as follows:.

Cassava root yield is significantly higher for improved than for local varieties Nweke et al. Higher root yield will result in larger total production per unit area;.

Under this system, the relatively low field labour requirement contrasts with the high processing labour demand Fresco, This implies that any cost-saving advantage of yield-increasing technology may not fully translate into expanded production if there is no matching cost-saving technology at the processing stage, since cost constraint is merely shifted to the processing stage Nweke et al.

On the other hand, the application of improved processing technology results in reduced processing time and labour, which, in turn, encourages further production.

Nweke observed that the relationship between the cassava production trend and whether cassava grating or mash pressing machines were available in the village was such that the relative frequency of villages which reported an increasing cassava production trend was high among villages where mash pressing and milling steps were mechanized and percent among villages where mechanized grating had been adopted;.

Cassava roots are bulky and with about 70 percent moisture content, are very perishable. It is therefore, expensive to transport cassava especially along poor access roads.

Market access is said to be good among villages where farmers go to markets by motor vehicle or where they do so on foot for distances of 10 km or less and poor where they have to travel on foot over 10 km Nweke, About 85 percent of the representative villages had good market access Ugwu, Good market access also encourages the participation of middleperson in cassava marketing.

By so doing, middlepersons relieve farmers of the marketing task, which gives them more time to grow more cassava.

Cassava land area and root yield were found to be significantly higher among villages with good market access, but only the cassava land area showed a significant positive relationship with the participation of middlepersons Ugwu, These observations imply that improvement in market access infrastructure and the participation of middlepersons in marketing cassava resulted in cassava production growth.

Under the Land Use Act of , land is owned by the Government on behalf of the community. However, cultivated land is occupied by individuals and households under customary tenure where land is regarded as the property of the community or extended family, the head of the community acting as the primary trustee or custodian of the farming land.

Under the communal system of land ownership, families and individuals acquired right of usage on a first come-first serve basis and such individual usage rights are heritable.

The basic qualification for land ownership is membership of a lineage. Any farmer who wants to farm outside his family land may get land on lease or rent.

Payments for rented land range from token amounts to economic rates. Outright sale of farm land is rare. For most households, ownership of farm land has been acquired through inheritance which is paternal, from father to son s or the nearest male relatives.

This inheritance procedure and the customary concept of land ownership passes control over land to the household heads. However, in households where Muslim law is practiced, the son, daughter and wives are to share land in the ratio of 4: In most cases, women have access to land by virtue of their membership in the household as wives, daughters, or sisters.

Their commonest access to land is through their husbands, fathers and brothers. Less than half of available arable land in each agro-ecological zone of the cassava-growing area is put to use at any one time.

Even though the area of land under fallow has been on the decreasing side, access to land per se is generally not seen as a serious constraint by the farmers.

On average, the extent of land under fallow is greater than that under cultivation. Generally, most of the farmers are smallholders with production primarily oriented towards meeting subsistence needs.

They hold about 90 percent of the land and produce more than 90 percent of the agricultural commodities; large-scale farmers account for less than 10 percent of agricultural production.

Average cultivated area per farming household ranges from 0. Traditionally, each farm had double or more of the cultivated area as fallow.

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Starch is extracted before cassava is sun dried and blended for a top quality product. This can be used for breads, puddings and as thickener to thicken soups.

Grated Cassava Sun dried tender grated cassava for a variety of uses. Can be used as a substitute for fresh grated cassava.

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Cassava Enterprises Video

Cassava plantation in Ghana Outright sale of farm land is rare. Nigeria is currently the largest producer of cassava in the world merkur casino tricks 2017 an annual production of over 34 million tonnes of tuberous roots. Where this was not available, it was determined by the picrate leaf method and therefore reported as either high or low. The average land-holding is less than two hectares and for most farmers, land and family labour remain the essential inputs. In December In all places, cassava has become very popular as a food and cash crop Golden Sevens Deluxe Casino Slot Online | PLAY NOW is fast replacing yam and other traditional staples of the area. It is consumed in many processed forms, in 6 aus 45 lotto industry and also as livestock feed. Retrieved 23 March The lack of standard weights wrist | All the action from the casino floor: news, views and more measures for cassava products in the marketplace means one must rely on laboratory and industrial standards and conversions that do not accurately reflect the real world and the vast number of cassava processors in Nigeria. The ban placed on the importation of these tradable products raised the domestic prices, hence reducing their demand, with the result that consumers switched over to the consumption of cassava and cassava products. The principal causes of land degradation include soil erosion, deforestation and stellenangebote casino spillage. Availability of labour within families or capital to hire labour, governs the area of land that can be PariPlay Slots - Play Free PariPlay Slot Games Online and the types of crops that can be grown. With poor market access, marketing of cassava can be particularly problematic because of its bulky nature, especially if it is not processed. MrRaloff , gestern um Julian , gestern um Oktober - Vorgestern Vorstellung von Spieldev: Crypto , heute um Simbda , heute um Die Wahrheit über CasinoTest Momoo , gestern um Das war's mit den Casinos und den streamern. Heroes Casino ist Blitzschnell. Passwort vergessen Hiermit können Sie Ihr Passwort zurücksetzen 1.

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Cassava Enterprises is licensed and regulated in Gibraltar. They are also registered with the Gambling Commission in the UK.

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The main corporate asset Cassava Enterprises actually owns is its online gaming licence, so in essence Cassava Enterprises provides online gaming services, payment processing services, licensing, and licensing compliance services.

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The over generous application of this policy as a result of the World Trade Organization WTO code, has made a mess of our infant industries by exposing them to rude and unfair competition to dumped goods from all over the globe.

Government must moderate this policy by protecting our local products. Globalization must be approached with reason and protective judgment.

Free Trade as a global concept should not be adopted at expense of our domestic economy. Importation of primary goods that can be produced locally by our SMEs should be discontinued and consumers should be educated to buy made in Nigeria goods so as to promote local employment.

SMEs should be exempted from company tax for 10 years to enable them pay off their loans and get established. This will enable them to grow, create employment and produce goods and services for the economy.

The products of viable SMEs will discourage frivolous importation which puts pressure on our foreign exchange and over-heats inflation.

There are numerous other problems like management skill, lack of adequate infrastructure like power, water, roads, etc.

Low consumer patronage, high cost of production, security, adulteration of goods, etc. The government is seriously addressing some of these.

The BOI is tailored to be a reliable source of long term funds for SMEs and the interest and amortization rates should be more friendly than the commercial banks.

It has offices in 36 states of the federation including the federal capital. The agency can help new entrepreneurs draw business plans and can reactive old businesses.

The agency needs to be more proactive by conducting workshops and seminars for SMEs and future entrepreneurs.

Some states had taken bold and emphatic steps to ameliorate the excessive lack of credit of Small Businesses and grassroots entrepreneurs.

Delta State championed an innovative package of N16 billion which was disbursed through Community Banks. Ltd to provide loans to SMEs.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 21 March Retrieved 12 October

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