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In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos or polymer-fiber diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode , preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen formed at the cathode.
Diaphragm methods produce dilute and slightly impure alkali, but they are not burdened with the problem of mercury disposal and they are more energy efficient.
Membrane cell electrolysis employs permeable membrane as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium or potassium chloride solution is passed through the anode compartment, leaving at a lower concentration.
This method also produces very pure sodium or potassium hydroxide but has the disadvantage of requiring very pure brine at high concentrations.
In the Deacon process , hydrogen chloride recovered from the production of organochlorine compounds is recovered as chlorine.
The process relies on oxidation using oxygen:. The reaction requires a catalyst. As introduced by Deacon, early catalysts were based on copper.
Commercial processes, such as the Mitsui MT-Chlorine Process, have switched to chromium and ruthenium-based catalysts.
Sodium chloride is by a huge margin the most common chlorine compound, and it is the main source of chlorine and hydrochloric acid for the enormous chlorine-chemicals industry today.
About chlorine-containing compounds are commercially traded, including such diverse compounds as chlorinated methanes and ethanes , vinyl chloride and its polymer polyvinyl chloride PVC , aluminium trichloride for catalysis , the chlorides of magnesium , titanium , zirconium , and hafnium which are the precursors for producing the pure elements, and so on.
Other particularly important organochlorines are methyl chloride , methylene chloride , chloroform , vinylidene chloride , trichloroethylene , perchloroethylene , allyl chloride , epichlorohydrin , chlorobenzene , dichlorobenzenes , and trichlorobenzenes.
In France as elsewhere , animal intestines were processed to make musical instrument strings, Goldbeater's skin and other products. This was done in "gut factories" boyauderies , and it was an odiferous and unhealthy process.
Labarraque's research resulted in the use of chlorides and hypochlorites of lime calcium hypochlorite and of sodium sodium hypochlorite in the boyauderies.
The same chemicals were found to be useful in the routine disinfection and deodorization of latrines , sewers , markets, abattoirs , anatomical theatres , and morgues.
Labarraque's chlorinated lime and soda solutions have been advocated since to prevent infection called "contagious infection", presumed to be transmitted by " miasmas " , and to treat putrefaction of existing wounds, including septic wounds.
In , the contagion of infections was well known, even though the agency of the microbe was not discovered until more than half a century later.
During the Paris cholera outbreak of , large quantities of so-called chloride of lime were used to disinfect the capital.
This was not simply modern calcium chloride , but chlorine gas dissolved in lime-water dilute calcium hydroxide to form calcium hypochlorite chlorinated lime.
Labarraque's discovery helped to remove the terrible stench of decay from hospitals and dissecting rooms, and by doing so, effectively deodorised the Latin Quarter of Paris.
Chloride of lime was used for destroying odors and "putrid matter". One source claims chloride of lime was used by Dr. John Snow to disinfect water from the cholera-contaminated well that was feeding the Broad Street pump in London,  though three other reputable sources that describe that famous cholera epidemic do not mention the incident.
Perhaps the most famous application of Labarraque's chlorine and chemical base solutions was in , when Ignaz Semmelweis used chlorine-water chlorine dissolved in pure water, which was cheaper than chlorinated lime solutions to disinfect the hands of Austrian doctors, which Semmelweis noticed still carried the stench of decomposition from the dissection rooms to the patient examination rooms.
Long before the germ theory of disease, Semmelweis theorized that "cadaveric particles" were transmitting decay from fresh medical cadavers to living patients, and he used the well-known "Labarraque's solutions" as the only known method to remove the smell of decay and tissue decomposition which he found that soap did not.
The solutions proved to be far more effective antiseptics than soap Semmelweis was also aware of their greater efficacy, but not the reason , and this resulted in Semmelweis's celebrated success in stopping the transmission of childbed fever "puerperal fever" in the maternity wards of Vienna General Hospital in Austria in Much later, during World War I in , a standardized and diluted modification of Labarraque's solution containing hypochlorite 0.
Called Dakin's solution , the method of wound irrigation with chlorinated solutions allowed antiseptic treatment of a wide variety of open wounds, long before the modern antibiotic era.
A modified version of this solution continues to be employed in wound irrigation in modern times, where it remains effective against bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics see Century Pharmaceuticals.
By , the US Department of Treasury called for all drinking water to be disinfected with chlorine. Chlorine is presently an important chemical for water purification such as in water treatment plants , in disinfectants , and in bleach.
As a disinfectant in water, chlorine is more than three times as effective against Escherichia coli as bromine , and more than six times as effective as iodine.
Chlorine is usually used in the form of hypochlorous acid to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking water supplies and public swimming pools.
In most private swimming pools, chlorine itself is not used, but rather sodium hypochlorite , formed from chlorine and sodium hydroxide , or solid tablets of chlorinated isocyanurates.
The drawback of using chlorine in swimming pools is that the chlorine reacts with the proteins in human hair and skin. The distinctive 'chlorine aroma' associated with swimming pools is not the result of chlorine itself, but of chloramine , a chemical compound produced by the reaction of free dissolved chlorine with amines in organic substances.
Even small water supplies are now routinely chlorinated. It is often impractical to store and use poisonous chlorine gas for water treatment, so alternative methods of adding chlorine are used.
These include hypochlorite solutions, which gradually release chlorine into the water, and compounds like sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione dihydrate or anhydrous , sometimes referred to as "dichlor", and trichloro-s-triazinetrione , sometimes referred to as "trichlor".
These compounds are stable while solid and may be used in powdered, granular, or tablet form. When added in small amounts to pool water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming hypochlorous acid HOCl , which acts as a general biocide, killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, and so on.
It also tasted metallic and stung the back of the throat and chest. Chlorine reacts with water in the mucosa of the lungs to form hydrochloric acid , destructive to living tissue and potentially lethal.
Human respiratory systems can be protected from chlorine gas by gas masks with activated charcoal or other filters, which makes chlorine gas much less lethal than other chemical weapons.
It was pioneered by a German scientist later to be a Nobel laureate, Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, in collaboration with the German chemical conglomerate IG Farben , which developed methods for discharging chlorine gas against an entrenched enemy.
Chlorine gas was also used during the Iraq War in Anbar Province in , with insurgents packing truck bombs with mortar shells and chlorine tanks.
The attacks killed two people from the explosives and sickened more than Most of the deaths were caused by the force of the explosions rather than the effects of chlorine since the toxic gas is readily dispersed and diluted in the atmosphere by the blast.
In some bombings, over a hundred civilians were hospitalized due to breathing difficulties. The Iraqi authorities tightened security for elemental chlorine, which is essential for providing safe drinking water to the population.
The Syrian government allegedly uses chlorine as a chemical weapon ,  often dropping it in barrel bombs ,  but sometimes also in rockets.
The chloride anion is an essential nutrient for metabolism. Chlorine is needed for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions.
Overly low or high concentrations of chloride in the blood are examples of electrolyte disturbances. Hypochloremia having too little chloride rarely occurs in the absence of other abnormalities.
Its sometimes associated with hypoventilation. When symptoms do occur, they tend to resemble those of hypernatremia having too much sodium.
Reduction in blood chloride leads to cerebral dehydration; symptoms are most often caused by rapid rehydration which results in cerebral edema.
Hyperchloremia can affect oxygen transport. Chlorine is a toxic gas that attacks the respiratory system, eyes, and skin.
Chlorine gas is a strong oxidizer, which may react with flammable materials. Chlorine is detectable with measuring devices in concentrations as low as 0.
When used at specified levels for water disinfection, the reaction of chlorine with water is not a major concern for human health.
Other materials present in the water may generate disinfection by-products that are associated with negative effects on human health. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has designated a recommended exposure limit of 0.
In the home, accidents occur when hypochlorite bleach solutions come into contact with certain acidic drain-cleaners to produce chlorine gas.
Chlorine is widely used for purifying water, especially potable water supplies and water used in swimming pools.
Several catastrophic collapses of swimming pool ceilings have occurred from chlorine-induced stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel suspension rods.
Both materials were used in hot and cold water domestic plumbing, and stress corrosion cracking caused widespread failures in the US in the s and s.
The adjacent picture shows a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system. The cracks started at injection molding defects in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed.
The fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure. The element iron can combine with chlorine at high temperatures in a strong exothermic reaction, creating a chlorine-iron fire.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Chlorine disambiguation.
For other uses, see CL disambiguation and CL2 disambiguation. Chlorine production and Chloralkali process.
Water chlorination and Bleach. Chemical weapons in World War I. Chlorine bombings in Iraq. Use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Civil War.
Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. Archived from the original on April 30, In section 6 on pp. After this mixture had been standing in the cold for one hour, the acid had assumed a dark brown colour.
One part of this solution was poured into a glass, which was placed over the fire. For an English translation of the relevant passages of this article, see: The Early History of Chlorine: Papers by Carl Wilhelm Scheele , C.
Berthollet , Guyton de Morveau , J. Thenard Edinburgh, Scotland: Alembic Club, , pp. Archived from the original on The development of modern chemistry.
Journal of Chemical Education. The phenomena that it presents can be explained well enough on this hypothesis; we shall not seek to defend it, however, as it appears to us that they are still better explained by regarding oxygenated muriatic acid as a compound body.
On some of the combinations of oxymuriatic gas and oxygene, and on the chemical relations of these principles, to inflammable bodies".
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Davy named chlorine on p. Journal für Chemie und Physik in German.
Archived from the original on June 15, Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 13 December History of Industrial Gases.
Labarraque — " [The great pharmacists: Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie in French. Archived from the original PDF on 21 February Archived from the original on 14 August The Riddle of the Rhine: Chemical Strategy in Peace and War.
Archived from the original PDF on Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity.
Environmental Science and Technology. Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Science and technology in medicine. On the disinfecting properties of Labarraque's preparations of chlorine.
Translated by James Scott. On the disinfecting properties of Labarraque's preparations of chlorine Archived at the Wayback Machine.
Highley, Accessed Nov 1, The Foul and the Fragrant: Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine. John Snow and the Mystery of Cholera.
More Than His Solution". The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st ed. Archived from the original on March 30, Archived from the original on October 24, Kurdistan Region Security Council.
Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 30 April Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 25 August Disinfectants Create Toxic By-products".
A review and roadmap for research". Corrosion of steel in concrete: Archived from the original on 10 May Archived from the original PDF on September 15, Learning from Case Histories, 3rd Revised edition.
Opera omnia [All Works] in Latin. From "Complexionum atque mistionum elementalium figmentum. Quae nil aliud est, quam merum sal volatile.
That [distillate] is nothing else than pure volatile salt [i. Take four ounces of this [viz, nitric acid], add one ounce of Armenian salt [i.
From "De Flatibus" On gases , p. Periodic table Large cells. United States chemical weapons program. Army Chemical Corps U.
Army Chemical Center U. Army Chemical Materials Activity U. Agents used in chemical warfare incapacitation riot control. Chlorosarin Chlorosoman 1,8-Dibromooctane N,N-Diisopropylaminoethanol Dimethylamidophosphoric dichloride Dimethylamidophosphoric dicyanide Methyldichlorophosphine Methylphosphonic acid dichloride Methylphosphonyl difluoride Pinacolyl alcohol QL 3,3,5-Trimethylcyclohexanol.
Adamsite Chloropicrin Diphenylchlorarsine Diphenylcyanoarsine Diphenylaminecyanoarsine. Methyl fluoroacetate Ricin Abrin Enterotoxin type B. List of chemical warfare agents CB military symbol.
Pharmacy and pharmacology portal Medicine portal. Retrieved from " https: Chlorine Chemical elements Halogens Diatomic nonmetals Hazardous air pollutants Occupational safety and health Pulmonary agents Swimming pool equipment Oxidizing agents Industrial gases Gases with color World Health Organization essential medicines.
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